Robin hood freunde

robin hood freunde

Robin Hood [ˌrɒbɪn hʊd] ist der zentrale Held mehrerer spätmittelalterlicher bis .. mit dem gealterten Robin Hood und seinen Freunden erleben lassen. Robin Hood kehrt mit Auszeichnungen und einer neuen Sicht auf Fairness und den Wert des menschlichen Lebens aus dem Heiligen Land zurück. Er ist schlau . Robin Hood kämpft mutig in Sherwood Forrest gegen den Königssohn Prince John und seine Bande. Bei der Rettung des Königreichs helfen ihm die Maid. Robin Hood type place-names occurred particularly everywhere except Sherwood. Find more about Robin Hood at Wikipedia's sister projects. When his enemies do not fall for this ruse, he persuades them to drink with him instead see Robin Hood's Delight. The Rise The GrandWest Casino and Entertainment World – South Africa | Casino.com Australia Fall of Merry England: On the Outlaw Trail. In this last work in particular, the modern Robin Hood—'King of Outlaws and prince lottoland.com seriös good fellows! This was not common throughout England, but in some regions the custom lasted until Elizabethan times, and during the reign of Henry VIIIwas briefly popular at court. A collection of all the Ancient Poems Songs and Ballads now extant, relative to that celebrated Outlaw. Robin hood freunde is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause. It is Jonson's only pastoral drama, it was written in sophisticated verse Beste Spielothek in Burgalben finden included supernatural action and characters. Nevertheless, was heißt 3 adventures was bedeutet offen bei paypal still more local than national in scope: Bower goes on to tell a story about Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood, and then gains tipbet casino surprise victory over them, apparently as a reward for his piety.

Robin Hood Freunde Video

Robin Hood Deutsch Folgen #63 Jahrhundert erfolgter Wandlung zum Sozialrevolutionär bei. Little John berichtet, dass Adam Bell nach Nottingham zurück gekehrt sei, ein ebenfalls Geächteter, der vor 20 Jahren in dieser Gegend für Gerechtigkeit kämpfte. Ihm wurde unter anderem Diebstahl in einer Abtei und die Ermordung eines Mönches vorgeworfen. Jahrhunderts im Volk verbreitet waren. Er widersetzt sich dem repressiven Jagdverbot in den königlichen Forsten und ist Feind der als korrupt und habgierig beschriebenen weltlichen und geistlichen Oberschicht, aus der seine bevorzugten Opfer stammen. Ich wäre dir für einen Ratschlag sehr dankbar. Kurssicherung und weitere Downloads. Erstelle einen konkreten Vorschlag für sein Profil. Im Jahr darauf sei er vom nach Nottingham gereisten König begnadigt und dessen Kammerdiener geworden; ein solcher namens Robyn Hod taucht nämlich in den königlichen Schatzkammerakten auf und schied Ende dieses Jahres wegen Arbeitsunfähigkeit mit einer finanziellen Zuwendung aus dem Dienst aus. Informationen für Lehrkräfte Fachbezug Informatik Schulstufe ab der 5. Hier lernt er, was Freundschaft, Gemeinschaft und Vertrauen bedeuten, Dinge, die er von seinem Onkel niemals erfuhr. Walker Robin Hood identified , und P. Im Jahre kann der junge englische Adelige Robin von Locksley aus der Kriegsgefangenschaft entfliehen — zusammen mit dem Mauren Azeem, der ebenfalls zum Tode verurteilt wurde. Wie kann man den Urheber herausfinden? Robin eilt zu dessen Rettung, tötet den Sheriff und befreit Richard.

hood freunde robin -

Walker Robin Hood identified , und P. Er soll am Ende des Als der Sheriff davon hört, lässt er die Mitanführer foltern und verhören. Er verlangt Goldmünzen für das Leben des Jungen, den er im Wald gefangen hält. In den Jahren von bis taucht dieser Beiname im ganzen Land siebenmal in verschiedenen Quellen auf. Nach einem vorübergehenden Dasein in königlichen Diensten endet Robin Hoods Abenteuerleben durch den Verrat einer Frau, der Priorin von Kirklees, die ihn während eines Aderlasses heimtückisch verbluten lässt. Der Ehrenkodex der Cyber-Ritter Aufgabe. Ausführlich dargestellt wird die Volkserzählung von Robin Hood in spätmittelalterlichen Balladen, deren älteste erhaltene Beispiele jedoch erst über zwei Jahrhunderte nach dem Einsetzen der Legendenbildung niedergeschrieben wurden. In der Folge erzählt Bower eine Anklänge an frühe Balladenstoffe aufweisende Geschichte von Robin Hood, laut welcher dieser trotz Warnungen vor einem Angriff des Sheriffs die vorzeitige Beendigung einer von ihm im Wald zelebrierten Messe abgelehnt und danach einen überraschenden Sieg über seine Feinde errungen habe. Robin eilt zu dessen Rettung, tötet den Sheriff und befreit Richard. Sicheres Profil in einer Online Community erstellen. Nach einem vorübergehenden Dasein in königlichen Diensten endet Robin Hoods Abenteuerleben durch den Verrat einer Frau, der Priorin von Kirklees, die ihn während eines Aderlasses heimtückisch verbluten lässt. In die Geschichten um Robin Hood best casinos europe verschiedene Begebenheiten ein, die zuvor in den Legenden um den wirklich während der Zeit der normannischen Eroberung Englands im Widerstand aktiven Führer Hereward the Wake kreisten. Robins Vater Lord Locksley wurde getötet, das Familienschloss niedergebrannt und die Ländereien beschlagnahmt; einzig der geblendete Diener Duncan ist noch dort. De Rainault hat gerade seinen Neffen Martin auf der Burg zu Welche teufelsfrucht passt zu mir, dem er stolz den gefangenen Much präsentiert und dessen Hinrichtung für den folgenden Tag ankündigt. Im Folgenden wird eine Liste von ausgewählten Filmen und Fernsehserien, in deren Zentrum der legendäre Held steht, aufgeführt:. Themen dieses Tipbet casino Allgemeines. Nach feigenbutz keta vorübergehenden Dasein in königlichen Diensten endet Robin Hoods Abenteuerleben durch den Verrat einer Frau, der Priorin von Kirklees, bitcoin casinos ihn während eines Aderlasses heimtückisch verbluten lässt. Videospiele Filme TV Wikis. John Little Walter Robin hood freunde Vorherige Der König kommt.

Robin hood freunde -

Viele Eigenschaften, die das populäre Bild Robin Hoods bis heute prägen, werden ihm schon in den ältesten erhaltenen Balladen zugeschrieben oder sind zumindest ansatzweise vorhanden. Durch die fehlenden Szenen, die man in den fertigen Film einfügte, wurde es für die deutsche Veröffentlichung notwendig, den Film noch einmal komplett neu zu synchronisieren. Jahrhundert wurde beispielsweise erfunden, dass Robin Hood noch im Sterben einen Pfeil abschoss, um so die Stelle zu markieren, an der er begraben werden wollte. Tuck begibt sich nach Nottingham, um zu erkunden, was mit Much geschehen. Wie zeichnet sich ehrenhaftes, tapferes Verhalten hier aus? Eine solche weitere Person, die Stoff für die Legende geliefert haben könnte, ist Roger Godberd , der wie der von Walter Bower beschriebene Robin Hood ein Anhänger von Simon de Montfort war, nach dem Scheitern von dessen Rebellion als Anführer einer Geächtetenschar die Grafschaften Nottinghamshire , Derbyshire und Leicestershire terrorisierte, erst nach jahrelanger Verfolgung festgenommen werden konnte und im Gefängnis zu Newgate starb.

The only significant omission was Robin Hood and the Monk which would eventually be printed in Ritson's interpretation of Robin Hood was also influential.

Himself a supporter of the principles of the French Revolution and admirer of Thomas Paine Ritson held that Robin Hood was a genuinely historical, and genuinely heroic, character who had stood up against tyranny in the interests of the common people.

In his preface to the collection Ritson assembled an account of Robin Hood's life from the various sources available to him, and concluded that Robin Hood was born in around , and thus had been active in the reign of Richard I.

He thought that Robin was of aristocratic extraction, with at least 'some pretension' to the title of Earl of Huntingdon, that he was born in an unlocated Nottinghamshire village of Locksley and that his original name was Robert Fitzooth.

Ritson gave the date of Robin Hood's death as 18 November , when he would have been around 87 years old.

In copious and informative notes Ritson defends every point of his version of Robin Hood's life. Nevertheless, Dobson and Taylor credit Ritson with having 'an incalculable effect in promoting the still continuing quest for the man behind the myth', and note that his work remains an 'indispensable handbook to the outlaw legend even now'.

Ritson's friend Walter Scott used Ritson's anthology collection as a source for his picture of Robin Hood in Ivanhoe , written in , which did much to shape the modern legend.

In the 19th century the Robin Hood legend was first specifically adapted for children. Children's editions of the garlands were produced and in a children's edition of Ritson's Robin Hood collection.

Children's Robin Hood novels began to appear. It is not that children did not read Robin Hood stories before, but this is the first appearance of a Robin Hood literature specifically aimed at them.

Egan made Robin Hood of noble birth but raised by the forestor Gilbert Hood. Nevertheless, the adventures are still more local than national in scope: These developments are part of the 20th-century Robin Hood myth.

Pyle's Robin Hood is a yeoman and not an aristocrat. The idea of Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman lords also originates in the 19th century.

In this last work in particular, the modern Robin Hood—'King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows! The 20th century grafted still further details on to the original legends.

The film, The Adventures of Robin Hood , starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland , portrayed Robin as a hero on a national scale, leading the oppressed Saxons in revolt against their Norman overlords while Richard the Lionheart fought in the Crusades; this movie established itself so definitively that many studios resorted to movies about his son invented for that purpose rather than compete with the image of this one.

In , during the McCarthy era, the Republican members of the Indiana Textbook Commission called for a ban of Robin Hood from all Indiana school books for promoting communism because he stole from the rich to give to the poor.

In the animated Disney film, Robin Hood , the title character is portrayed as an anthropomorphic fox voiced by Brian Bedford.

Years before Robin Hood had even entered production, Disney had considered doing a project on Reynard the Fox. However, due to concerns that Reynard was unsuitable as a hero, animator Ken Anderson adapted some elements from Reynard into Robin Hood , thus making the title character a fox.

The British-American film Robin and Marian , starring Sean Connery as Robin Hood and Audrey Hepburn as Maid Marian, portrays the figures in later years after Robin has returned from service with Richard the Lionheart in a foreign crusade and Marian has gone into seclusion in a nunnery.

This is the first in popular culture to portray King Richard as less than perfect. Since the s, it has become commonplace to include a Saracen Muslim among the Merry Men, a trend that began with the character Nasir in the ITV Robin of Sherwood television series.

Later versions of the story have followed suit: The character Azeem in the movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves was originally called Nasir, until a crew member who had worked on Robin of Sherwood pointed out that the Nasir character was not part of the original legend and was created for the show Robin of Sherwood.

The name was immediately changed to Azeem to avoid any potential copyright issues. The historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries.

A difficulty with any such historical research is that Robert was a very common given name in medieval England , and 'Robin' or Robyn , was its very common diminutive , especially in the 13th century; [73] it is a French hypocorism , [74] already mentioned in the Roman de Renart in the 12th century.

The surname Hood or Hude, Hode, etc. It is therefore unsurprising that medieval records mention a number of people called 'Robert Hood' or 'Robin Hood', some of whom are known to have fallen foul of the law.

The earliest recorded example, in connection with May games in Somerset , dates from The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records, or even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in various works.

From onward, the names 'Robinhood', 'Robehod' or 'Robbehod' occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames or descriptions of malefactors.

The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between and , there are at least eight references to 'Rabunhod' in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north.

Leaving aside the reference to the "rhymes" of Robin Hood in Piers Plowman in the s, the first mention of a quasi-historical Robin Hood is given in Andrew of Wyntoun 's Orygynale Chronicle , written in about The following lines occur with little contextualisation under the year The next notice is a statement in the Scotichronicon , composed by John of Fordun between and , and revised by Walter Bower in about Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage that directly refers to Robin.

It is inserted after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents. Robin is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause.

The word translated here as "murderer" is the Latin sicarius literally "dagger-man" , from the Latin sica for "dagger".

Bower goes on to tell a story about Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood, and then gains a surprise victory over them, apparently as a reward for his piety.

Another reference, discovered by Julian Luxford in , appears in the margin of the " Polychronicon " in the Eton College library.

Written around the year by a monk in Latin, it says:. In a petition presented to Parliament in , the name is used to describe an itinerant felon. The petition cites one Piers Venables of Aston, Derbyshire , "who having no liflode, ne sufficeante of goodes, gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers, beynge of his clothynge, and, in manere of insurrection, wente into the wodes in that countrie, like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne.

The earliest known legal records mentioning a person called Robin Hood Robert Hod are from , found in the York Assizes , when that person's goods, worth 32 shillings and 6 pence, were confiscated and he became an outlaw.

Robert Hod owed the money to St Peter's in York. The following year, he was called "Hobbehod". Robert Hod of York is the only early Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw.

Owen in floated the idea that Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between and Historian Oscar de Ville discusses the career of John Deyville and his brother Robert, along with their kinsmen Jocelin and Adam, during the Second Barons' War , specifically their activities after the Battle of Evesham.

John Deyville was granted authority by the faction led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester over York Castle and the Northern Forests during the war in which they sought refuge after Evesham.

John, along with his relatives, led the remaining rebel faction on the Isle of Ely following the Dictum of Kenilworth. While John was eventually pardoned and continued his career until , his kinsmen are no longer mentioned by historical records after the events surrounding their resistance at Ely, and de Ville speculates that Robert remained an outlaw.

The last of these is suggested to be the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering.

Although de Ville does not explicitly connect John and Robert Deyville to Robin Hood, he discusses these parallels in detail and suggests that they formed prototypes for this ideal of heroic outlawry during the tumultuous reign of Henry III's grandson and Edward I's son, Edward II of England.

David Baldwin identifies Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd , who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort , which would place Robin Hood around the s.

John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype Robin Hood". The antiquarian Joseph Hunter — believed that Robin Hood had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the fourteenth century.

Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw:.

Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory implying that Robert Hood had been an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster , who was defeated by Edward II at the Battle of Boroughbridge in According to this theory, Robert Hood was thereafter pardoned and employed as a bodyguard by King Edward, and in consequence he appears in the court roll under the name of "Robyn Hode".

Hunter's theory has long been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king before he appeared in the court roll, thus casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.

It has long been suggested, notably by John Maddicott , that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves.

Chief Rawandagon, headman and shaman of an Abenaki Indian tribe on the lower Androscoggin and Kennebec rivers in seacoast Maine was a notorious figure in early colonial New England.

What reminds us of him, wrote anthropologist Harald E. Prins , "are some place names in the lower Kennebec River area.

For instance, there is a Georgetown Island village called Robinhood, located at the entrance of Robinhood Cove. Merrymeeting Bay , situated nearby, is another symbolic reference.

As such, he assumed responsibility for the actions of his native compatriots in the region, and mediated in negotiations and conflicts between them and the English.

His final public act took place in , when he mediated in a smoldering conflict between his cohorts and the settlers.

Words used by an English observer to describe New England's natives in the s are revealing: When they had sported enough about this walking Maypole , a rough hewne Satyre cutteth a gobbit of flesh from his brawnie arme, eating it in his view, searing it with a firebrand Given this mindset, it is easy to imagine how Rawandagon, as an Indian headman, came to be identified with the fair's Lord of Misrule —Robin Hood.

Not surprisingly, the English also associated the name Robin Hood with deception by trickery, as in the saying: Typically, they were paid a mere pittance for their land.

Consider Rawandagon's first deed, a contract first identifying him as Robin Hood. In exchange for a considerable piece of land located on the east bank of the lower Kennebec at Nequaseg, now Woolwich , which had "one wigwam, or Indian house" on it, he received the sum total of "one hogshead of corn and thirty sound pumpkins" [98].

There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being regarded as later development.

While the outlaw often shows great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont Willie , which were based on historical events.

Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light.

The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In popular culture, Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed as living in Sherwood Forest , in Nottinghamshire.

Notably, the Lincoln Cathedral Manuscript , which is the first officially recorded Robin Hood song dating from approximately , makes an explicit reference to the outlaw that states that "Robyn hode in scherewode stod.

His chronicle entry reads:. Mary in the village of Edwinstowe and most famously of all, the Major Oak also located at the village of Edwinstowe.

Dendrologists have contradicted this claim by estimating the tree's true age at around eight hundred years; it would have been relatively a sapling in Robin's time, at best.

Nottinghamshire's claim to Robin Hood's heritage is disputed, with Yorkists staking a claim to the outlaw. In demonstrating Yorkshire's Robin Hood heritage, the historian J.

Holt drew attention to the fact that although Sherwood Forest is mentioned in Robin Hood and the Monk , there is little information about the topography of the region, and thus suggested that Robin Hood was drawn to Nottinghamshire through his interactions with the city's sheriff.

Robin Hood's Yorkshire origins are generally accepted by professional historians. A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th century gives Robin Hood's birthplace as Loxley , Sheffield , in South Yorkshire.

The original Robin Hood ballads, which originate from the fifteenth century, set events in the medieval forest of Barnsdale.

Barnsdale was a wooded area covering an expanse of no more than thirty square miles, ranging six miles from north to south, with the River Went at Wentbridge near Pontefract forming its northern boundary and the villages of Skelbrooke and Hampole forming the southernmost region.

From east to west the forest extended about five miles, from Askern on the east to Badsworth in the west. During the medieval age Wentbridge was sometimes locally referred to by the name of Barnsdale because it was the predominant settlement in the forest.

And, while Wentbridge is not directly named in A Gest of Robyn Hode , the poem does appear to make a cryptic reference to the locality by depicting a poor knight explaining to Robin Hood that he 'went at a bridge' where there was wrestling'.

The Gest makes a specific reference to the Saylis at Wentbridge. Credit is due to the nineteenth-century antiquarian Joseph Hunter , who correctly identified the site of the Saylis.

The Saylis is recorded as having contributed towards the aid that was granted to Edward III in —47 for the knighting of the Black Prince. An acre of landholding is listed within a glebe terrier of relating to Kirk Smeaton , which later came to be called "Sailes Close".

Taylor indicate that such evidence of continuity makes it virtually certain that the Saylis that was so well known to Robin Hood is preserved today as "Sayles Plantation".

One final locality in the forest of Barnsdale that is associated with Robin Hood is the village of Campsall. Davis indicates that there is only one church dedicated to Mary Magdalene within what one might reasonably consider to have been the medieval forest of Barnsdale, and that is the church at Campsall.

The church was built in the late eleventh century by Robert de Lacy, the 2nd Baron of Pontefract. The backdrop of Saint Mary's Abbey at York plays a central role in the Gest as the poor knight who Robin aids owes money to the abbot.

Er rettet sich auf den höchsten Turm, der, vom Sheriff entzündet, lichterloh brennt. Robin springt in höchster Not in den Burggraben und scheint getötet.

Er hat sich jedoch retten können und taucht aus dem Burggraben auf. Zu aller Überraschung kommt nun endlich König Richard wieder und bereitet dem bunten Treiben ein Ende.

Im direkten Vergleich mit Das Dschungelbuch fällt auf, dass bei Robin Hood offensichtlich Szenen aus dem früheren Film wiederverwendet wurden: Auch finden sich Parallelen zu Schneewittchen und Aristocats.

Schneewittchen nachempfunden und der schlagzeugspielende Hase ähnelt optisch stark dem musizierenden Siamkater aus Aristocats. Der Film erhielt überwiegend positive Kritiken.

So wertete etwa Filmkritiker Steven D. David Keyes beschrieb den Film auf Cinemaphile. Der Film habe Humor, was bei vorangegangenen Filmen oft zu kurz gekommen sei, und verfolge eine solide konstruierte Handlung.

Auf der anderen Seite gab es auch Misstöne, z. Er schreibt, der Film sei kein Disneyfilm der besseren Sorte und schade dem guten Ruf früherer Disneywerke.

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Even when Robin is defeated, he usually tricks his foe into letting him sound his horn, summoning the Merry Men to his aid. When his enemies do not fall for this ruse, he persuades them to drink with him instead see Robin Hood's Delight.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Robin Hood ballads were mostly sold in "Garlands" of 16 to 24 Robin Hood ballads; these were crudely printed chap books aimed at the poor.

The garlands added nothing to the substance of the legend but ensured that it continued after the decline of the single broadside ballad.

In Thomas Percy bishop of Dromore published Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , including ballads from the 17th-century Percy Folio manuscript which had not previously been printed, most notably Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne which is generally regarded as in substance a genuine late medieval ballad.

A collection of all the Ancient Poems Songs and Ballads now extant, relative to that celebrated Outlaw. The only significant omission was Robin Hood and the Monk which would eventually be printed in Ritson's interpretation of Robin Hood was also influential.

Himself a supporter of the principles of the French Revolution and admirer of Thomas Paine Ritson held that Robin Hood was a genuinely historical, and genuinely heroic, character who had stood up against tyranny in the interests of the common people.

In his preface to the collection Ritson assembled an account of Robin Hood's life from the various sources available to him, and concluded that Robin Hood was born in around , and thus had been active in the reign of Richard I.

He thought that Robin was of aristocratic extraction, with at least 'some pretension' to the title of Earl of Huntingdon, that he was born in an unlocated Nottinghamshire village of Locksley and that his original name was Robert Fitzooth.

Ritson gave the date of Robin Hood's death as 18 November , when he would have been around 87 years old. In copious and informative notes Ritson defends every point of his version of Robin Hood's life.

Nevertheless, Dobson and Taylor credit Ritson with having 'an incalculable effect in promoting the still continuing quest for the man behind the myth', and note that his work remains an 'indispensable handbook to the outlaw legend even now'.

Ritson's friend Walter Scott used Ritson's anthology collection as a source for his picture of Robin Hood in Ivanhoe , written in , which did much to shape the modern legend.

In the 19th century the Robin Hood legend was first specifically adapted for children. Children's editions of the garlands were produced and in a children's edition of Ritson's Robin Hood collection.

Children's Robin Hood novels began to appear. It is not that children did not read Robin Hood stories before, but this is the first appearance of a Robin Hood literature specifically aimed at them.

Egan made Robin Hood of noble birth but raised by the forestor Gilbert Hood. Nevertheless, the adventures are still more local than national in scope: These developments are part of the 20th-century Robin Hood myth.

Pyle's Robin Hood is a yeoman and not an aristocrat. The idea of Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman lords also originates in the 19th century.

In this last work in particular, the modern Robin Hood—'King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows! The 20th century grafted still further details on to the original legends.

The film, The Adventures of Robin Hood , starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland , portrayed Robin as a hero on a national scale, leading the oppressed Saxons in revolt against their Norman overlords while Richard the Lionheart fought in the Crusades; this movie established itself so definitively that many studios resorted to movies about his son invented for that purpose rather than compete with the image of this one.

In , during the McCarthy era, the Republican members of the Indiana Textbook Commission called for a ban of Robin Hood from all Indiana school books for promoting communism because he stole from the rich to give to the poor.

In the animated Disney film, Robin Hood , the title character is portrayed as an anthropomorphic fox voiced by Brian Bedford.

Years before Robin Hood had even entered production, Disney had considered doing a project on Reynard the Fox.

However, due to concerns that Reynard was unsuitable as a hero, animator Ken Anderson adapted some elements from Reynard into Robin Hood , thus making the title character a fox.

The British-American film Robin and Marian , starring Sean Connery as Robin Hood and Audrey Hepburn as Maid Marian, portrays the figures in later years after Robin has returned from service with Richard the Lionheart in a foreign crusade and Marian has gone into seclusion in a nunnery.

This is the first in popular culture to portray King Richard as less than perfect. Since the s, it has become commonplace to include a Saracen Muslim among the Merry Men, a trend that began with the character Nasir in the ITV Robin of Sherwood television series.

Later versions of the story have followed suit: The character Azeem in the movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves was originally called Nasir, until a crew member who had worked on Robin of Sherwood pointed out that the Nasir character was not part of the original legend and was created for the show Robin of Sherwood.

The name was immediately changed to Azeem to avoid any potential copyright issues. The historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries.

A difficulty with any such historical research is that Robert was a very common given name in medieval England , and 'Robin' or Robyn , was its very common diminutive , especially in the 13th century; [73] it is a French hypocorism , [74] already mentioned in the Roman de Renart in the 12th century.

The surname Hood or Hude, Hode, etc. It is therefore unsurprising that medieval records mention a number of people called 'Robert Hood' or 'Robin Hood', some of whom are known to have fallen foul of the law.

The earliest recorded example, in connection with May games in Somerset , dates from The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records, or even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in various works.

From onward, the names 'Robinhood', 'Robehod' or 'Robbehod' occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames or descriptions of malefactors.

The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between and , there are at least eight references to 'Rabunhod' in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north.

Leaving aside the reference to the "rhymes" of Robin Hood in Piers Plowman in the s, the first mention of a quasi-historical Robin Hood is given in Andrew of Wyntoun 's Orygynale Chronicle , written in about The following lines occur with little contextualisation under the year The next notice is a statement in the Scotichronicon , composed by John of Fordun between and , and revised by Walter Bower in about Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage that directly refers to Robin.

It is inserted after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents. Robin is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause.

The word translated here as "murderer" is the Latin sicarius literally "dagger-man" , from the Latin sica for "dagger".

Bower goes on to tell a story about Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood, and then gains a surprise victory over them, apparently as a reward for his piety.

Another reference, discovered by Julian Luxford in , appears in the margin of the " Polychronicon " in the Eton College library. Written around the year by a monk in Latin, it says:.

In a petition presented to Parliament in , the name is used to describe an itinerant felon. The petition cites one Piers Venables of Aston, Derbyshire , "who having no liflode, ne sufficeante of goodes, gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers, beynge of his clothynge, and, in manere of insurrection, wente into the wodes in that countrie, like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne.

The earliest known legal records mentioning a person called Robin Hood Robert Hod are from , found in the York Assizes , when that person's goods, worth 32 shillings and 6 pence, were confiscated and he became an outlaw.

Robert Hod owed the money to St Peter's in York. The following year, he was called "Hobbehod". Robert Hod of York is the only early Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw.

Owen in floated the idea that Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between and Historian Oscar de Ville discusses the career of John Deyville and his brother Robert, along with their kinsmen Jocelin and Adam, during the Second Barons' War , specifically their activities after the Battle of Evesham.

John Deyville was granted authority by the faction led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester over York Castle and the Northern Forests during the war in which they sought refuge after Evesham.

John, along with his relatives, led the remaining rebel faction on the Isle of Ely following the Dictum of Kenilworth.

While John was eventually pardoned and continued his career until , his kinsmen are no longer mentioned by historical records after the events surrounding their resistance at Ely, and de Ville speculates that Robert remained an outlaw.

The last of these is suggested to be the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering.

Although de Ville does not explicitly connect John and Robert Deyville to Robin Hood, he discusses these parallels in detail and suggests that they formed prototypes for this ideal of heroic outlawry during the tumultuous reign of Henry III's grandson and Edward I's son, Edward II of England.

David Baldwin identifies Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd , who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort , which would place Robin Hood around the s.

John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype Robin Hood". The antiquarian Joseph Hunter — believed that Robin Hood had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the fourteenth century.

Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw:. Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory implying that Robert Hood had been an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster , who was defeated by Edward II at the Battle of Boroughbridge in According to this theory, Robert Hood was thereafter pardoned and employed as a bodyguard by King Edward, and in consequence he appears in the court roll under the name of "Robyn Hode".

Hunter's theory has long been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king before he appeared in the court roll, thus casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.

It has long been suggested, notably by John Maddicott , that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves. Chief Rawandagon, headman and shaman of an Abenaki Indian tribe on the lower Androscoggin and Kennebec rivers in seacoast Maine was a notorious figure in early colonial New England.

What reminds us of him, wrote anthropologist Harald E. Prins , "are some place names in the lower Kennebec River area.

For instance, there is a Georgetown Island village called Robinhood, located at the entrance of Robinhood Cove. Merrymeeting Bay , situated nearby, is another symbolic reference.

As such, he assumed responsibility for the actions of his native compatriots in the region, and mediated in negotiations and conflicts between them and the English.

His final public act took place in , when he mediated in a smoldering conflict between his cohorts and the settlers. Words used by an English observer to describe New England's natives in the s are revealing: When they had sported enough about this walking Maypole , a rough hewne Satyre cutteth a gobbit of flesh from his brawnie arme, eating it in his view, searing it with a firebrand Given this mindset, it is easy to imagine how Rawandagon, as an Indian headman, came to be identified with the fair's Lord of Misrule —Robin Hood.

Not surprisingly, the English also associated the name Robin Hood with deception by trickery, as in the saying: Typically, they were paid a mere pittance for their land.

Consider Rawandagon's first deed, a contract first identifying him as Robin Hood. In exchange for a considerable piece of land located on the east bank of the lower Kennebec at Nequaseg, now Woolwich , which had "one wigwam, or Indian house" on it, he received the sum total of "one hogshead of corn and thirty sound pumpkins" [98].

There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being regarded as later development.

While the outlaw often shows great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont Willie , which were based on historical events.

Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light.

The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In popular culture, Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed as living in Sherwood Forest , in Nottinghamshire.

Notably, the Lincoln Cathedral Manuscript , which is the first officially recorded Robin Hood song dating from approximately , makes an explicit reference to the outlaw that states that "Robyn hode in scherewode stod.

His chronicle entry reads:. Mary in the village of Edwinstowe and most famously of all, the Major Oak also located at the village of Edwinstowe.

Dendrologists have contradicted this claim by estimating the tree's true age at around eight hundred years; it would have been relatively a sapling in Robin's time, at best.

Nottinghamshire's claim to Robin Hood's heritage is disputed, with Yorkists staking a claim to the outlaw. In demonstrating Yorkshire's Robin Hood heritage, the historian J.

Holt drew attention to the fact that although Sherwood Forest is mentioned in Robin Hood and the Monk , there is little information about the topography of the region, and thus suggested that Robin Hood was drawn to Nottinghamshire through his interactions with the city's sheriff.

Robin Hood's Yorkshire origins are generally accepted by professional historians. A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th century gives Robin Hood's birthplace as Loxley , Sheffield , in South Yorkshire.

The original Robin Hood ballads, which originate from the fifteenth century, set events in the medieval forest of Barnsdale.

Barnsdale was a wooded area covering an expanse of no more than thirty square miles, ranging six miles from north to south, with the River Went at Wentbridge near Pontefract forming its northern boundary and the villages of Skelbrooke and Hampole forming the southernmost region.

From east to west the forest extended about five miles, from Askern on the east to Badsworth in the west. During the medieval age Wentbridge was sometimes locally referred to by the name of Barnsdale because it was the predominant settlement in the forest.

And, while Wentbridge is not directly named in A Gest of Robyn Hode , the poem does appear to make a cryptic reference to the locality by depicting a poor knight explaining to Robin Hood that he 'went at a bridge' where there was wrestling'.

The Gest makes a specific reference to the Saylis at Wentbridge. Credit is due to the nineteenth-century antiquarian Joseph Hunter , who correctly identified the site of the Saylis.

The Saylis is recorded as having contributed towards the aid that was granted to Edward III in —47 for the knighting of the Black Prince.

Bruder Tuck bleibt in seiner leeren Kirche nur noch das Glockenläuten, um die Menschen aufzumuntern. Die Armenkasse der Kirche ist leer und die Kirchenmäuse geben ihr letztes Erspartes, als der Sheriff auftaucht und auch diese letzte Reserve einzieht.

Bruder Tuck vertreibt den Sheriff mit Schlägen aus seiner Kirche und wird dafür wegen Widerstand gegen die Staatsgewalt inhaftiert. Prinz John grübelt zu diesem Zeitpunkt wieder einmal darüber nach, wie man Robin Hood zu Leibe rücken kann, als ihm die Idee kommt.

Er beraumt eine Hinrichtung für den gerade festgenommenen Bruder Tuck an, um Robin Hood zu einer heldenhaften Rettungstat zu verleiten und ihn dann zu fassen.

Er richtet zwischen dem Schlafzimmer des Prinzen und dem Gefängnisfenster zusammen mit Little John eine Seilbahn ein und befördert so Geldsack für Geldsack vom Schlafzimmer in das Gefängnis.

Alles geht gut, bis Sir Hiss beim letzten Geldsack aufwacht und Alarm schlägt. Eilig hasten Robin und seine Freunde in Richtung Ausgang und wähnen sich schon in Sicherheit, als das jüngste Mitglied der Hasenfamilie vermisst wird.

Robin rettet es in letzter Sekunde, ist nun aber selbst in der Burg gefangen. Er rettet sich auf den höchsten Turm, der, vom Sheriff entzündet, lichterloh brennt.

Robin springt in höchster Not in den Burggraben und scheint getötet. Er hat sich jedoch retten können und taucht aus dem Burggraben auf.

Zu aller Überraschung kommt nun endlich König Richard wieder und bereitet dem bunten Treiben ein Ende. Im direkten Vergleich mit Das Dschungelbuch fällt auf, dass bei Robin Hood offensichtlich Szenen aus dem früheren Film wiederverwendet wurden: Sign in to remove this from recommended.

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